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Voices for Change - Bethany Jackson

Voices for Change speaks to Bethany Jackson, who is a PhD student at the University of Nottingham in the Geography Department. Her thesis and work with the Rights Lab focuses on the usage of remote sensing in industries that utilise modern slavery.

Date of recording: 8th of March 2019

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Voices for Change - Annie Kelly

Voices for Change interviews Annie Kelly, who is a reporter and editor at the Guardian, where she leads their modern slavery reporting.

Date of recording: 27th of February 2019

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Voices for Change - Patricia Carrier

Voices for Change interviews Patricia Carrier, who is the Project Manager of the Modern Slavery Registry at Business and Human Rights Resource Centre.

Date of recording: 5th of February 2019

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Voices for Change - International Justice Mission

Voices for Change interviews three members of the International Justice Mission: David Westlake, the CEO of IJM in the UK; Steve Webster, the Chief Operating Officer; and Paul Newton, who is an international advocate for IJM.

Date of Recording: 12th November 2018

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Voices for Change - Todd Landman

Voices for Change interviews Todd Landman who is the Executive Director of The Rights Lab, a Professor of Political Science, and the Pro-Vice Chancellor of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Nottingham

Date of recording: 14th of December 2018

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Voices for Change - Shayne Tyler

Voices for Freedom interviews Shayne Tyler, who is the Operations Executive at Manor Fresh Limited, and has campaigned tirelessly against modern slavery since discovering it within his organisation in the year 2000.

Date of recording: 18th of October 2018

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Voices for Change - Zoe Trodd

Voices for Freedom interviews Zoe Trodd, who is the Director of the Rights Lab which is the Unviersity of Nottingham Beacon of Excellence that focuses on research to end slavery by 2030.

Date of recording: 14th December 2018

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Voices for Change - Kieran Guilbert

Voices for Freedom interviews Kieran Guilbert, journalist at the Thomson Reuters Foundation, where he is the Slavery and Trafficking Editor.

Date of recording: 9th January 2019

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Voices for Change - Paddy Tipping

Voices for Freedom interviews Nottinghamshire Police and Crime Commissioner Paddy Tipping as part of the Anti-Slavery Day events put on by the Rights Lab at the Nottingham Council House.

Date of recording: 18th of October 2018

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Voices for Change - Alison Gardner

Voices for Freedom interviews Alison Gardner, leader of Slavery Free Communities at the University of Nottingham's Rights Lab.

Date of recording: 14th December 2018

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Voices for Change - Alex Norris MP

Voices for Freedom interviews Alex Norris MP as part of the Anti-Slavery Day events put on by the Rights Lab at the Nottingham Council House.

Date of recording: 18th of October 2018

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Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London

Nigel: They fed me, that was it. That was the only thing they did do, you know what I mean? They said the money would be there at the weekend. I went, ‘Make sure my money’s there, you know what I mean?’ I said, ‘I just want my money. I work hard, I just want my money, that’s all I want.’ Come Friday, I fronted them, they surrounded me – ‘Just get back in your caravan.’ They threatened me. They said, ‘Go back in your caravan or we’ll dust you up,’ they said. It was a bit terrifying, wasn’t it, you know what I mean? I mean you don’t want to beat twenty people. They’re nasty people, they’re just nasty people.Men from 18 to 60 have been targeted from this area and are largely exploited in the block paving and tarmacking industry as well as areas such as agriculture, food processing and factory work.Transcript: Street Slaves, File on 4, BBC Radio 4.The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves.Photo: Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London, courtesy of The Dark Figure

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Walker Street, Rawmarsh, Rotherham

February 2016 A gang of three brothers, their uncle and two women were found guilty of 55 serious offences, some of which lay undetected for almost 20 years. 15 vulnerable girls, one as young as 11, were subjected to acts of sexual violence between 1987 and 2003 including rape, forced prostitution, indecent assault and false imprisonment.  Karen MacGregor was sentenced to 13 years for conspiracy to procure a child for prostitution, false imprisonment, and conspiracy to rape. MacGregor was a high-profile campaigner on behalf of abused children. In 2013, she founded KinKids, a community support group for kinship carers. MacGregor boasted that KinKids had helped families affected by the scandal. She had persuaded Rotherham council, local Labour MP John Healey and other local organisations to support KinKids in the wake of heightened investigation into cases of child abuse in Rotherham.  MacGregor had been luring vulnerable girls to her home in Walker Street, which was described by one of the victims as akin to the Hansel and Gretel fairy tale. There, she would groom them before pimping them out in order for them to earn their keep. One of her victims described how MacGregor was a motherly figure who had taken her under her wing at a difficult time in her life and treated her like a daughter. Another victim described how within days of arriving, MacGregor had plied her with vodka to the point of unconsciousness before waking up to find herself being sexually assaulted.  New investigation: The conduct of more than 50 officers from South Yorkshire Police who had dealt with the victims across the 20 year period is now under investigation.The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves. Photo: Walker Street, Rawmarsh, Rotherham, courtesy of The Dark Figure

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Longworth Street, Preston

July 2015 A tweet on the Preston Police Twitter page raised concern about some young women living at an address in Longworth Street, which was suspected to be a brothel. Further enquiries led to a police raid at the address, where two young women were found and were thought to have been brought to the UK from Romania and forced into sexual exploitation.   Marius Petre, Adrian Matei and Ionut Ion were arrested at the address. The victims, both aged 18, had only been in the UK for two weeks before they were found. They were transported to the UK from Romania by Petre and Matei with the promise of work as maids at a hotel. Instead, they were taken to Longworth Street where they were told they would be working as prostitutes. The girls were forced to perform sexual acts on customers and were told that both they and their families would be beaten if they refused to comply, or tried to run away. They were also subjected to rape by Petre, Matei and Ionut, who were already at the house when the women arrived. In February 2016, Marius Petre and Adrian Matei were found guilty of intentionally arranging or facilitating entry to the UK of a person with a view to their sexual exploitation, causing or inciting prostitution for financial gain and of four counts of rape. They were both sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.  Ionut Ion was found guilty of keeping or managing a brothel used for prostitution and of two counts of rape. He was sentenced to 13 years imprisonment.The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves. Photo: Longworth Street, Preston, courtesy of The Dark Figure

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Bolton Poultry Products, Moncrieffe Street, Bolton

March 2016 Two men and one woman were arrested and subsequently charged for servitude after a dawn raid at the factory of wholesale chicken supplier Bolton Poultry Products.  Six workers were found and have been identified as possible victims of human trafficking and forced labour. It is suspected that the workers were living on the site. One man was found hiding inside a shipping container which contained makeshift beds made from tables, whilst another was found sleeping on top of concrete with bits of cardboard in a boiler room. Charges were dropped against former director of Bolton Poultry Products, Ebrahim Dalal. His son and daughter-in-law Said Dalal and Anisha Dalal, both directors of Bolton Halal Chicken continue to face charges. Case ongoing.The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves. Photo: Bolton Poultry Products, Moncrieffe Street, Bolton, courtesy of The Dark Figure

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Farrier Road, Perivale, Ealing, London

March 2014 61-year-old Emmanuel Edet and his wife, 58-year-old Antan Edet were arrested by London police in their home in Perivale, North West London, after their “houseboy” Ofonime Sunday Inuk heard a radio report about modern slavery, and called a charity asking for their help. Emmanuel Edet, a former NHS obstetrician and Antan Edet, a senior midwife, trafficked Inuk, an orphan from Nigeria in 1989, telling immigration officials he was their teenage son. For 24 years Inuk worked unpaid for up to 17 hours per day looking after the couple’s two sons and performing domestic duties such as cooking, cleaning and gardening. He was made to sleep on the floor of the hallway. After confiscating his passport, the couple told Inuk if he were to leave the house he would be deported as an illegal immigrant.  In November 2015, The Edet’s were found guilty of child cruelty, servitude and for the assistance of unlawful immigration. Each have been sentenced to six years.Although the mistreatment of Inuk spanned 24 years, servitude only became an offence under the Coroners and Justice Act in 2009, so their conviction and sentencing for servitude can only count for injustices from 2010 to 2013.The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves. Photo: Farrier Road, Perivale, Ealing, London, courtesy of The Dark Figure

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Morecambe Bay

2004 A number of local fishermen were called in by the coastguard to help with the rescue of 24 Chinese cockle pickers that were trapped by the sweeping tides. Within a few hours, 20 bodies had been recovered and only 1 man was found alive. Morecambe Bay holds a 28-mile tide. Locals told the press that the disaster was avoidable had the cockle pickers known the geography of the area. Instead, they were unable to navigate a safe route off the cockle bed. The workers had been imported unlawfully via shipping containers into Liverpool where they were hired out through local criminal agents of international Chinese Triads. Rescues of large groups of stranded Chinese cockle pickers by Morecambe locals had already taken place in previous years, but rather than act as a warning to both gangmasters and authorities, the booming cockling trade meant the industry was heavily under-regulated, so workers could be easily exploited.  In May 2004, the 21st body was washed up. January 2006 Gangmaster Lin Liang Ren was found guilty of the manslaughter of at least 21 people, of breaking immigration laws and for conspiracy to pervert the course of justice. He was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. Ren’s girlfriend Zhao Xiao Qing and cousin Lin Mu Yong, were both found guilty of facilitating illegal immigration and for perverting the course of justice. They were sentenced to 7 ½ years between them. Business owners of Liverpool Bay Fishing Company Ltd. David Anthony Eden senior and David Antony Eden junior, bought the gang’s cockles for far cheaper than local rates. Both were found not guilty for helping the workers break immigration law.The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves.

Photo: Morecambe Bay, courtesy of The Dark Figure

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Wheelers Lane, Linton, Maidstone, Kent

2012 3 Lithuanians working for D.J. Houghton Catching Services in Kent, visited a nearby Citizens Advice Bureau to ask for help after experiencing severe mistreatment from their employers, a local couple from Maidstone, Darrell Houghton and Jacqueline Judge. The couple supplied chicken catchers to hundreds of poultry farms across the UK, including many of the largest factory farms producing eggs for leading supermarkets and high street fast-food chains. A chicken catcher can catch up to 6000 birds an hour on farms that house more than 1 million birds and work is usually carried out in the dark overnight, to keep the birds as calm as possible. Legal limits restrict how long birds are allowed to be kept in crates awaiting slaughter, so nearly all farms today use agency labour, and will order workers at short notice. The Houghton’s would send their workers as far as Penzance, unpaid, sometimes for only 2 hours work in unsanitary conditions without sufficient personal protective equipment or clothing. Toilet break requests were denied and their destination was always unknown. No food or drink was ever provided. The Houghton’s advertised their jobs online and used a Lithuanian associate to arrange for the men’s travel to the UK. They promised good wages and accommodation, but were immediately debt-bonded on arrival. They were told that once in the UK they were to pay an illegal £350 “work-finding fee”, which was deducted from their wages, along with £40 or £50 rent per week. The accommodation they provided was overcrowded and dirty. They did not have a bed, a shower, or adequate food for days at a time. They were subjected to intimidation and abuse, all the while being severely underpaid. The men were also denied their wages for reasons such as leaving a mug unwashed in the kitchen sink, or if they were seen out on their nights off. 2015. Of the 6 men working for the Houghton’s between 2008 and 2012, 3 have been officially recognised as victims of trafficking for labour exploitation. The Houghton’s were arrested but not charged. They told local media that they were blameless and that the allegations are untrue. The Houghton’s did admit to paying a Lithuanian national to find workers for their chicken catching business.  December 2016. A Lithuanian man is arrested by the Klaipeda County Police in Lithuania for human trafficking. It is suspected that the 53-year-old gained up to £90,000 in 3 years by trafficking his own country-men. In a new legal landmark, 6 survivors have sued the company and its directors in the high court for damages. The survivors won the settlement, worth more than 1 million pounds in compensation for unpaid wages, distress, personal injury and consequential losses. It is the first such case of a UK company being sued for modern slavery related offences.  Ten other claimants are now expected to bring similar cases against D.J. Houghton’s.The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves. Photo: Wheelers Lane, Linton, Maidstone, Kent, courtesy of The Dark Figure

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Smart Street, Longsight, Manchester

July 2013 A 36-year-old Latvian woman arrived in the UK with the belief that she would be given a job on a mushroom farm. Instead, she was taken to the house of Hanan Butt and Jekaterina Ostrovska in Slough, and was then moved to Birmingham where she was introduced to Mohammed Akmal, whom she later married in a false Islamic ceremony, witnessed by Rashid Ahmed. The victim was moved to two addresses in Longsight, Manchester. In the first address, she existed in a small attic bedroom which was locked while Akmal’s family lived in the main house. The second address had metal grates over the windows and she was not allowed to use the telephone or leave the house without being supervised.  The victim was found after she managed to tear off a partial address from a piece of mail and rang her mother who then informed Interpol.   November 2015 Mohammed Akmal and Rashid Ahmed were both found guilty of conspiracy to seek to remain leave in the UK by deception. Akmal was sentenced to one year and eight months, whilst Ahmed was sentenced to just nine months imprisonment.  Hanan Butt and Jekaterina Ostrovska both pleaded guilty to human trafficking for exploitation. Butt was sentenced to two years and eight months, whilst Ostrovska was sentenced to two years and six months imprisonment.The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves.

Photo: Smart Street, Longsight, Manchester, courtesy of The Dark Figure

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Portugal Street, Holborn, London

Lincoln’s Inn Fields is home to two of the largest and most popular soup kitchens in London, and is also a well known trafficking hub. Christian: Guys came round, old gypsy guys. They said, ‘Do you want a job? Can you do a bit of labouring?’ I said, ‘How much are you going to pay?’ ‘We’ll pay you when the job’s finished.’ We drive down to this remote place and there’s a shed. He said to me, ‘You’re going to sleep in that shed.’ The traffickers will often wear high-vis jackets and will arrive in vans or cars, aware that homeless and unemployed people will congregate at certain areas at certain times. This provides them the opportunity to make a selection based on who looks most vulnerable. Alcoholics are commonly targeted and are provided with alcohol and cigarettes in exchange for a ride, with no information as to where they are going or why. The Dark Figure* is an ongoing photographic project that investigates and documents UK neighbourhoods where victims have been identified as modern-day slaves.Photo: Portugal Street, Holborn, London, courtesy of The Dark Figure